Our Approach

LncRNAs – The Science

Long non-coding RNAs, or lncRNAs, are a large and untapped class of disease-causing targets.  The non-coding portion of the genome, commonly referred to as “dark matter”, is dynamically active, generating thousands of therapeutically unexplored targets.

LncRNAs account for 27% of non-coding RNA genes, which make up two thirds of all genes.

Discovery Engine

LncRNAs offer an enormous opportunity as a novel target space to be explored, and at Flamingo, we believe we have the solution with antisense modulation to properly drug these targets.

Our proprietary discovery engine FLAME – which stands for Flamingo LncRNA Antisense Mining Engine – is perfectly suited to mine the “dark matter” of the genome, exploit lncRNA biology, and identify targets that are exquisitely sensitive to antisense modulation.

Flamingo has developed proprietary tools and methods to identify the right target and apply our proven antisense chemistry to create targeted cancer therapies.

Our Product Candidates

Levering the breadth and depth of our team’s expertise in RNA therapeutics and cancer drug development, we have the largest antisense RNA-targeting oncology portfolio with promising programs against “undruggable” targets STAT-3, Androgen Receptor (AR), IRF4, MALAT1, SAMMSON, and others.

Our Pipeline

Flamingo’s focus is on the development of RNA-targeted therapies for difficult to treat cancers.


The Role of Non-coding RNAs in Oncology.

Slack FJ, Chinnaiyan AM.

Cell. 2019 Nov 14;179(5):1033-1055. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.10.017.
PMID: 31730848 Free PMC article. Review.

The bright side of dark matter: lncRNAs in cancer.

Evans JR, Feng FY, Chinnaiyan AM.

J Clin Invest. 2016 Aug 1;126(8):2775-82. doi: 10.1172/JCI84421. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
PMID: 27479746 Free PMC article. Review.

The landscape of long noncoding RNAs in the human transcriptome.

Iyer MK, Niknafs YS, Malik R, Singhal U, Sahu A, Hosono Y, Barrette TR, Prensner JR, Evans JR, Zhao S, Poliakov A, Cao X, Dhanasekaran SM, Wu YM, Robinson DR, Beer DG, Feng FY, Iyer HK, Chinnaiyan AM.

Nat Genet. 2015 Mar;47(3):199-208. doi: 10.1038/ng.3192. Epub 2015 Jan 19.
PMID: 25599403 Free PMC article.

Oncogenic Role of THOR, a Conserved Cancer/Testis Long Non-coding RNA.

Hosono Y, Niknafs YS, Prensner JR, Iyer MK, Dhanasekaran SM, Mehra R, Pitchiaya S, Tien J, Escara-Wilke J, Poliakov A, Chu SC, Saleh S, Sankar K, Su F, Guo S, Qiao Y, Freier SM, Bui HH, Cao X, Malik R, Johnson TM, Beer DG, Feng FY, Zhou W, Chinnaiyan AM.

Cell. 2017 Dec 14;171(7):1559-1572.e20. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.11.040.
PMID: 29245011 Free PMC article.

Melanoma addiction to the long non-coding RNA SAMMSON.

Leucci E, Vendramin R, Spinazzi M, Laurette P, Fiers M, Wouters J, Radaelli E, Eyckerman S, Leonelli C, Vanderheyden K, Rogiers A, Hermans E, Baatsen P, Aerts S, Amant F, Van Aelst S, van den Oord J, de Strooper B, Davidson I, Lafontaine DL, Gevaert K, Vandesompele J, Mestdagh P, Marine JC.

Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):518-22. doi: 10.1038/nature17161.
PMID: 27008969

Analyses of non-coding somatic drivers in 2,658 cancer whole genomes.

Rheinbay E, Nielsen MM, Abascal F, Wala JA, Shapira O, Tiao G, Hornshøj H, Hess JM, Juul RI, Lin Z, Feuerbach L, Sabarinathan R, Madsen T, Kim J, Mularoni L, Shuai S, Lanzós A, Herrmann C, Maruvka YE, Shen C, Amin SB, Bandopadhayay P, Bertl J, Boroevich KA, Busanovich J, Carlevaro-Fita J, Chakravarty D, Chan CWY, Craft D, Dhingra P, Diamanti K, Fonseca NA, Gonzalez-Perez A, Guo Q, Hamilton MP, Haradhvala NJ, Hong C, Isaev K, Johnson TA, Juul M, Kahles A, Kahraman A, Kim Y, Komorowski J, Kumar K, Kumar S, Lee D, Lehmann KV, Li Y, Liu EM, Lochovsky L, Park K, Pich O, Roberts ND, Saksena G, Schumacher SE, Sidiropoulos N, Sieverling L, Sinnott-Armstrong N, Stewart C, Tamborero D, Tubio JMC, Umer HM, Uusküla-Reimand L, Wadelius C, Wadi L, Yao X, Zhang CZ, Zhang J, Haber JE, Hobolth A, Imielinski M, Kellis M, Lawrence MS, von Mering C, Nakagawa H, Raphael BJ, Rubin MA, Sander C, Stein LD, Stuart JM, Tsunoda T, Wheeler DA, Johnson R, Reimand J, Gerstein M, Khurana E, Campbell PJ, López-Bigas N; PCAWG Drivers and Functional Interpretation Working Group; PCAWG Structural Variation Working Group, Weischenfeldt J, Beroukhim R, Martincorena I, Pedersen JS, Getz G; PCAWG Consortium.

Nature. 2020 Feb;578(7793):102-111. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-1965-x. Epub 2020 Feb 5.
PMID: 32025015 Free PMC article.

Differentiation of mammary tumors and reduction in metastasis upon Malat1 lncRNA loss.

Arun G, Diermeier S, Akerman M, Chang KC, Wilkinson JE, Hearn S, Kim Y, MacLeod AR, Krainer AR, Norton L, Brogi E, Egeblad M, Spector DL.

Genes Dev. 2016 Jan 1;30(1):34-51. doi: 10.1101/gad.270959.115. Epub 2015 Dec 23.
PMID: 26701265 Free PMC article.